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Dieta | Projeto Gavião-real

As aves de rapina, são predadores e caçam animais vivos para alimentar o filhote no ninho. O gavião-real, um dos maiores predadores do dossel em florestas tropicais alimenta-se principalmente de mamíferos arborícolas (preguiças, macacos e porcos-espinhos), aves, e ocasionalmente répteis. Estas informações vem sendo coletadas desde 1964, quando Fowler e Cope estiveram observando o comportamento alimentar de um filhote na Guiana Inglesa. Diversos pesquisadores em outras regiões da Amazônia, por exemplo, no Brasil (Aguiar-Silva et al., 2011; Aguiar-Silva, 2007; Sanaiotti et al., 2006), Peru (Piana, 2007), Ecuador (Muñiz-Lopez, 2008) e Venezuela (Alvarez-Cordero, 1996) continuaram a investigação e também identificaram as espécies caçadas pelo gavião-real, tanto por observação direta, ao permanecer horas no entorno do ninho (chão ou no alto das árvores), ou indiretamente, ao coletar vestígios de presas que caem do ninho no chão.

Harpia predando quati
Gavião-real adulto alimentando-se de um quati.

As coletas são realizadas no chão na base da árvore do ninho e no ninho após escalada a árvore do ninho para captura do filhote. Em áreas sazonalmente inundadas, telas de coleta são dispostas na base da árvore do ninho. As espécies de presas são identificadas a partir dos vestígios de ossos do crânio e da mandíbula, dos pêlos, dentes, unhas e caudas. Os fragmentos de crânios são montados e comparados com espécimes identificadas em coleções de referências e museus. O número mínimo de indivíduos consumidos é estimado a partir da contagem dos pares de crânios e mandíbulas, e assim podemos ter uma ideia da quantidade de presas que é retirada da floresta pelo gavião-real.

Vestigios de presas coletadas no ninho de Harpia, Parintins-AM. 2010
Vestígios de presas de gavião-real coletados no ninho por um escalador. Parintins, 2010.

Tela para coleta de vestígios de presas de uiraçu-falso abaixo da árvore do ninho em
áreas sazonalmente inundadas. Manacapuru, 2009.

O consumo desta presas pelo gavião-real, revela a importância desta espécie para as florestas. Como um predador de topo de cadeia trófica, exerce uma função reguladora nas florestas onde vive, ou seja, controla o número de indivíduos das espécies de presas que consome. Esta função é processo natural e permite a manutenção do ecossistema em equilíbrio. Neste sentido, podemos entender um pouco mais sobre o valor de se conhecer o recurso alimentar necessário para manter uma espécie, como o gavião-real.


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